Energy Kiosk - A Definition:    小水力利用推進協議会

An Energy Kiosk is a shop, where one can buy electricity in the off-grid villages of Kenya, and it may be for battery recharging for the newly introduced LED lamps, mobile phones, or automobiles, or for running tiny or small industries, agro or food processing appliances, or micro or small enterprises, or to run community centres, or to power nearby local schools by extending lines from the Kiosk, or any other small power applications. The Kiosk receives electricity from a local renewable energy source such as a micro hydro power unit, solar, wind or biomass based power generator or a DG set running on locally available vegetable oils.

UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization 国連工業開発機関


May 12, 2008Update on Kibae Energy Kiosk in Kiriyaga, Kenya




マサイ族が暮らすケニアには 、「サファリコム」と「セルテル」のふたつの携帯電話会社があり、2000年にはわずか18万人だった利用者は、2006年末には730万人なったそう(伸び率は実に4000%超!?)。


(Kirinyaga District, Kenya)


The Kibae Energy Kiosk is located in Kerugoya area which lies 150Km N.E of Nairobi.

This is an agriculturally productive area that is located on the slopes of Mt. Kenya.

The main economic activity in the area is small scale farming of tea, bananas, coffee, vegetables and fruits.

The Intervention. 

The Kibae community always had the dream of using the local resource of stream water anda 12M waterfall to produce energy.

In the year 2004, they embarked in activities to make this a reality and built a powerhouse and a temporary weir and intake.

They however did not have a hydro turbine.It is then that they approached the governments Ministry of Energy.

Early last year UNIDO was requested by the Ministry of Energy to assist this community by providing a hydro turbine and other technical support.

At around the same time UNIDO had developed the Energy Kiosk model and decided instead of just providing the community with a hydro turbine,  to develop a fully fledged Energy Kiosk.

Within a few months, with the help of the Kibae community, UNIDO has developed a model Energy Kiosk in this area.

The Energy
The Energy Kiosk is powered by a 2.5 KW hybrid Solar- Pico-hydro unit.

This means that power is generated from 2 different renewable energy sources namely solar power and small hydro-power.

The solar unit produces 500W while the Pico-hydro unit consists of two 1KW hydro turbines that produce a total of 2000W.

How is power produced from the Pico-hydro unit? 

 See the illustration below.

Water from the local stream called Mukengeria, which originates from the slopes of Mt. Kenya is dammed by a small weir and part of the water diverted to drive the two hydro turbines. 

Water, after driving the turbines is returned to the stream.

The electricity is evacuated to the energy kiosk by two transmission cables. 

Once at the kiosk, the electricity is stabilized by a simple electrical charge and controller system as illustrated below.
As seen, power from each independent transmission system is fed to a battery charging unit where it charged deep cycle batteries.
The batteries then supply the power to an inverter system that converts it into stable 240V 50HZ power that is similar to the normal Kenyan grid power.

Therefore, the hydro systems which run 24 hrs a day are constantly the batteries which in turn supply constant power to the Energy Kiosk.

On the other hand, the solar panels are connected to a similar charge and control unit where batteries are charged and power drawn when needed though an inverter system as illustrated below.
Therefore the above two systems are combined into one hybrid system (as illustrated below) that is connected to a 3.6KW inverter. 


 Battery bank 蓄電池群
Therefore the above two systems are combined into one hybrid system (as illustrated below) that is connected to a 3.6KW inverter. 
Energy Use

The power at the Kibae Energy Kiosk is by two main centers;
The Industrial center and the community center.  

1. Industrial Center.
This center houses manufacturing micro-enterprises.

 Currently they consist of:

Soap making enterprise
Juice processing enterprise
Maize milling enterprise
Poultry hatchery
2. Community Center
This consists of community-based enterprises including:

LED lamp and mobile phone recharging facility/enterprise.
Community hall that has Satellite TV and Video facility that charges for its services.
Internet service and Computer learning facility.
Hair clipping enterprise.
The Impact on The Community.
Among the enterprises with the largest social impact is the lamp recharging facility.

This is because the LED lamps being used are Low Energy Consumption lamps that are being introduced to the community to replace kerosene lamps that are the main source of lighting
in most rural communities in Kenya like the Kibae community.

 These lamps have a big advantage over the kerosene lamps in that:
They are clean non-polluting lamps that reduce indoor household pollution.
Reduces CO2 emission to the atmosphere thus reducing global warming. 
They have better light quality compared to kerosene lamps
These lamps are cheaper to operate than kerosene lamps
(over a 1 year period see calculation below). 
A typical household has 3 kerosene lamps that consume at least 15liters of kerosene per month. At the current price of kerosene of Kshs 70/liter.
This translates to Kshs 1050/month for lighting alone! 
Compare this to Kshs 20 paid for recharging 1 LED lamp.
The lamps need to recharged once per week, this translates to 20x3 lamps x 4 weeks which is Kshs 240 per month as the lighting bill.
Therefore an average rural family will save Kshs 810 per month on lighting for, cleaner and better quality light.
For a whole year, the family would save Kshs 810x12= 9,720 on energy alone.
Considering the cost of 1 LED lamp is Kshs 2,000, the cost of 3 lamps is Kshs 6,000, the savings they make would be enough to buy 3 lamps and have Kshs 3,720 left over.
The lamps have also been taken to nearby primary schools.
These lamps circulate within the students whereby each student gets a chance to carry a rechargeable lamp home for a week, and then return it to be taken by another student the following week.
The aim is to have students go to their homes and demonstrate the new technology there and hopefully have their parents get interested and buy the lamps. 
At the same time, during this time the students get to enjoy the benefits of good quality lighting.
Income to Energy Kiosk
The Energy Kiosk is projected to serve 300 households.
The aim is to get each household to have 3 LED lamps, which they will recharge at the Energy Kiosk.
We estimate these households to have 200 mobile phones and 30 car batteries.
In addition each enterprise supported by the Energy Kiosk pays for its own electricity (Which is metered individually).
It also pays for a monthly rent for space occupied
Estimated income per week from to the community center of the energy kiosk is as follows;
1. Community Center      

1 Kenyan Shilling = 1.32042 Japanese Yen

of Items
how many 
per month
Income per
Income per 
month (Kshs)
LED Lamps
Mobile Phones
Car Batteries
Other Services
Internet and Computer
TV Video Facility
Hair clipping
Rent and electricity sales
Total Income


2. Industrial Center.
As for the industrial center, within the first month of its operation, the
following was the actual income generated.
Enterprise Income per month(Kshs)
Soap Making 6,000
Maize milling 3,000
Juice making 2,000
Poultry incubator - (Starting operation)
Total Income 11,000


As can be seen above, the energy kiosk can and does make good income that ensures its sustainability

The Future

The community plans to increase the enterprises and services supported by the energy Kiosk.

These include;
Hair Plaiting and salon facility
Photocopying and printing services.
Mobile phone services like airtime sale and M-Pesa mobile money transfer.

And many others

Currently, the Energy Kiosk is projected to serve 300 households when more enterprises and services are introduced, this can increase to over 500 household in a about 3 months.

The Kibae Energy kiosk has demonstrated that the Energy Kiosk Model is truly workable and sustainable.

Therefore the Energy Kiosks can be replicated countrywide and beyond as off-the-grid energy centers in rural areas, which use hybrid renewable energy for productive use



Renewable Energy for Rural Development: A Wind-Based Energy Kiosk For Lamu District (KEN-GEF-04-015)

Country: KENYA
Grantee: Tavasal Foundation Trust Fund - TFTF (Non-government Organization)
Focal Area: Climate Change
Op. Program: OP5 - Removal of Barriers to Energy Efficiency and Energy Conservation
Project Type: Full
Operational Phase:   Phase 2
Dates: 9/2004 - 9/2006
Grant Amount: 50 000,00 USD
Project Status: Currently under execution
Project Types: Demonstration


Project Details & Results

In Kenya less than 4 % of the rural population have access to grid connected electricity and modern power. The lack of access to electricity for household, commercial, health and educational purposes impedes most forms of economic and social development at the rural level. Rural Kenyans have access to many natural resources such as the wind, water and sun, all of which have the potential to create substantial amounts of electrical power.
One key resource that is not being utilized throughout Kenya is the wind. Only 0.71Gwh of electricity is wind-generated - a mere fraction of the estimated 500 MW that could potentially be produced and utilized at both rural and urban levels.
The goal of this project is to improve the quality of and access to modern energy services for rural and peri-urban households, private business, and public sector institutions within Lamu district.
The primary objective of the proposed project is to set up and franchise a pilot wind-powered energy kiosk within Lamu district. The proposed kiosk will become an energy centre for lead acid battery charging, supply of power to small businesses and will provide, in the future, an entry point for the introduction and promotion of ICT services. The Kiosk will engage in the following activities:
- Battery sales and charging, sales, installation and maintenance of 12VDC systems including appliances and other accessories
- Supply of energy to businesses proximate to the kiosk, mobile phone charging and other value added services using the site generated power
- Provision of information about the benefits of renewable energy technologies to the general public.

Notable Community Participation
The community is providing the land for the energy kiosk

Capacity - Building Component
The communities will learn how to use enregy in a sustainable manner.The systems will ease access to information through radio and television

Emphasis on Sustainable Livelihoods
The primary beneficiaries of the project are rural households, businesses and public institutions, which will gain increased access to improved quality of modern energy services. In households, battery-based systems and other renewable energy products will provide lighted play and study space for children, as well as empowerment through enhanced access to national media sources such as television and radio. Local businesses will benefit from increased energy options, increasing incomes and employment opportunities in rural areas.

Gender Focus
The project is targeting both, men and women.

Promoting Public Awareness of Global Environment
Reduction of GHG emissions from battery charging would be on the order of 15-30 kgs CO2/year for 50-100 Ah battery for grid based recharging and 45 kgs CO2/year for generator based recharging. Assuming an average kerosene use 5-15 l/mo. per household in Kenya, emissions reduction from substitution of electric lights for kerosene lamps would be in the order of 130 - 400 kgs CO2 . It should be noted that higher income families tend to burn far more kerosene than low-income families.
In addition to CO2 displacement, decentralized BBS offer environmental advantages relative to the energy sources they commonly replace in rural households typically kerosene lamps and dry cell batteries. Reducing the need to store and burn kerosene improves air quality and safety.

Policy Impact
The wind energy kiosk could be replicated in other areas of Kenya with an adjusted configuration and have an impact of the current energy policy of the country.





○ 一級河川の河川区域内に小型水車および発電機の本体設置が許可 されたこと。
○ 余剰電力(街路灯なので昼間は電力不要)を関西電力に売電する こと。太陽光発電のような逆変換器(インバータ)を使った設備では「系統連系ガイドライン」により認められていますが、誘導発電機を直結させる(※2)マイクロ水力発電での売電は初めてのケースです。